austria's role in german unification


The essential bargain at Biarritz was that both kept dear of commitment to Austria, Bismarck for the sake of Germany and Napoleon III for the sake of Venetia. A dual monarchy was set up. But he had given in to the public's demand, promising that It occurred to Nigra, the Italian representative at Pans that Austria might acquire Rumania in exchange for Venetia and Napoleon approved of the idea. previous | Balkans and Path to the Great War, "The Great Eastern Crisis," Chapter 11, Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848-1918, by A J P Taylor,1971, Twilight of the Habsburgs: the Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph, by Alan Palmer, 1997, Bismarck, by Edgar Brief notes on Role of Mazzini in German Unification and Stages of German Unification(1848-70). It was pointed out that the Convention of Gastein was a great diplomatic victory for Bismarck. In 1824, the Carlsbad Decrees were made permanent. appeared ominous to France's Emperor Napoleon III. He meets me for the first time and he tells me all he is going to do. These foreign elements could not be expected to throw in their weight in the cause of German unity. Russia had not forgotten the Crimean War in which France had defeated her. Both of them were always engrossed with the present. TOS4.

It was decided at that meeting to set up a legislature of two houses and one executive head of the Federal Government of Germany. Its function was to have a thorough investigation of the facts relating to the origin and manifold ramification of the revolutionary plots and demagogical associations directed against the existing constitution and the internal peace of the union and the individual States. And believing that Mr. Amdt was reappointed as Professor at Bonn and Dahlmann was also given a chair in the same university. The Germans were superior in railway development, and Prussia's military counted heavily on use of its railways and its well-developed telegraph system. Bismarck was the Prussian ambassador at Petersburg from 1859 to 1862. The ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity were in accordance with the urges and aspirations of common masses. And with others favoring revolution they were left to contemplate reasons for the Commune's failure. The show over, the German troops marched back out of Paris, and the French scrubbed their streets trying to erase the German presence. Austria could be turned out from Germany only if Germany had a stronger force than that of Austria and that force could come only from Prussia. The result was that what they had begun as a bluff, they had to pursue in earnest. Thiers had ordered his troops to proceed with restraint, but his troops were angered by Communard resistance. Napoleon wanted to teach Prussia a lesson. The war was ended by the Treaty of Frankfurt of 1871 by which France ceded Alsace and Lorraine to Germany. Prussia left the German Confederation and declared war against Austria in 1866. However, the attempt had to be given up on account of the opposition of the Germans, Prussia and the Duke of Augustenburg who had very strong claims on the Duchies. They were supreme practitioners of realpolitik and their success is to be explained more by the profound and imaginative grasp of the immediate realities of international politics than by any alleged control over the long-term course of events. Under these circumstances, the Italians and Napoleons III were left with no other alternative except to carry on negotiations with Prussia. Italy annexed Rome on January 18, 1871, and Italy's King Victor Emmanuel

The terms of the Union were that the meetings were to be held at Berlin and other places. The German public had wanted the two provinces as part of their nation's triumph. Those demands were made by him merely to satisfy the public opinion in France in order to keep himself popular. The army was to take the oath of allegiance to the Constitution and not to the ruler. Austria refused and the Prussian troops entered Holstein and turned out the Austrians. However, after the overthrow of Metternich in 1848, Austria made a determined effort to join the Zollverein. Certain resolutions were passed and those were submitted to the Federal Diet which gave its approval.
It is these two persons who started reorganising the Prussian Army and they put forward their proposals for its further development. They had been hoping for a unified Germany but instead they got a German Confederation of 39 States. The only bait he held out to France was that, if Prussia got the Duchies, she would apply ‘the national principle’ by restoring northern Schleswig to Denmark; all he asked in return was benevolent neutrality.”. Both Austria and Hungary were to be independent in their affairs except in matters of war and diplomacy. Bismarck did all that he could to win over Russia and thereby ensure that in the event of a war with Austria, Russia would not join hands with Austria as she had done in 1849 when Nicholas I came to the help of Austria against Hungary. On the persuasion of Bismarck, the offer was renewed once again. Bismarck agreed to end the siege and to allow food convoys to immediately enter Paris, including trains carrying millions of German army rations, on condition that the Government of National Defence surrender several key fortresses outside Paris to the Prussians. In October 1865, Bismarck had an interview with Napoleon III at Biarritz. Pope Pius IX refused to accept Italy's occupation Denmark was forbidden to incorporate the Duchies. He brought the southern states of Bavaria, Baden and Wurtenberg in when it became a military and diplomatic necessity to shorten the war against France and preclude intervention by other powers. He gave them military officers to tram their armies, but otherwise did not interfere in their affairs. On the death of Frederick William IV in 1861, he became the King of Prussia. Addressing Italy's parliament he said: The work to which we consecrated our life is accomplished. The situation was serious and there was a possibility of war. The suggestion of Austria was that both of them should be handed over to the Duke of Augustenburg but Prussia refused to do so.

Anyhow, Bismarck had secured the neutrality of France and when the war started with Austria, the latter could expect no help from France. However, the Franco-Prussian War had other consequences also. Likewise, he could not threaten Prussia even if the Austrians offered him the Rhineland and Bismarck did not. He was to reside in the place where the university was situated and he was to exercise a large number of powers under the instructions of the ruler.

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